10 Ways to Get Rid of Your Customers

When you are in business, you need to remember that without your customers, you are nothing.  I have been in the ebook business for 6 years (internet marketing over 10 years) and have grown to appreciate my customers immensely.  It always amazes me when a fellow online business owner shows his/her customers no appreciation.  I even had one fellow ebook store owner say that he wanted everything as easy as possible because he did not want to have to bother with his customers.  I was stunned!

So, if you are like the above mentioned business owner and don’t want to have to “bother” with your customers, here are ten effective tips for doing just that!

1. Treat Your Customers Like Idiots – Use a lot of hype, pushy sales talk, clichés and mumbo-jumbo in your sales pitch and product info.  These people don’t know anything about what you’re selling so why talk to them honestly and intelligently.

2. Be Vague – Don’t have any clear, concise info on your website.  Don’t give a positive call-to-action.  Don’t let the customer know what your site is all about.  Don’t tell them anything about what you have to offer or how it can benefit them.

3. Don’t Bother Keeping Your Word – Promise them the moon and then after they buy who cares?? Once you make the sale, why bother keeping your promise – they fell for it!

4.  Don’t Answer Their Questions – Take your time answering emails.  Don’t put a FAQ page on your site.  Don’t give each one as much attention as they need to address all of their concerns.  You will probably just waste a lot of time answering their questions and then they won’t buy anyway.

5.  Make Your Site as Annoying as Possible – Be sure to add a lot of flash, frames and music to your site.  Don’t make all the pages consistent and be sure to confuse them with a complicated navigation menu.

6.  Be Sure to Automate Everything – Don’t give your customers the personal touch and be in contact with them.  That takes too much time.  Automate everything so you don’t have to deal with them.

7.  Hidden Costs – Don’t be upfront with all your product costs, shipping, etc.  If they know what everything costs, they probably won’t order!

8.  Definitely Don’t Offer Contact Info – Do not put your name and contact info on your site.  You don’t want these people to know who you are or how to contact you.

9.  Make Them Jump Through Hoops to Order – Make them click through as many steps as possible to order from you.  This way you know they really want your products.  If the ordering process is too simple, they might wonder why?!

10. Don’t Be Continually Updating Your Site – They might get confused if you keep changing things and offering new products, services, sales and specials.

10 Mistakes to Avoid When Writing Sales Copy by Terri Seymour

Writing effective sales copy is a skill and is vital to any business. Luckily, you can learn this skill by reading about it and by using common sense. Most of what you will learn is common sense and will go a long way in increasing your sales. Of course, all elements of writing sales copy cannot be covered in one short article but I have touched on many of the basic rules and strategies to remember and the mistakes to avoid.

  1. Not knowing and/or believing in your product. You need to know as much as possible about your product so this knowledge will come through in your sales copy. Also, if you do not believe in your product, this can also show through in your copy. Research your product, if you have to, and be prepared when writing your sales pitch.
  2. No sub-headings. Most people will scan over the sales page to see if the product would be something of interest to them. You need sub-headings to emphasize the important points of your copy so as to capture the reader’s attention. A good sub-heading would be something like: ‘Discover the secret to healthy fast weight loss.’ Keep your sub-headings as short as possible but make sure they pack a psychological punch!
  3. Not stressing the benefits. People want and need to know what is in it for them. Use a bulleted list to stress the benefits of your product. Pretend you are the customer. What would you want to know about the product you are selling? Let the customer know how your product will solve their problems.
  4. Not using testimonials. Testimonials will show the reader that real people have used the product and it has worked for them. Be sure to use credible testimonials that detail what the product has done for the customer. Use something like: I have more energy now than when I was in my 20’s, as opposed to something like: This product works great!
  5. Not using a P.S. Adding a P.S. at the end of your sales letter can have as much effect as a beginning headline. It could add that extra punch the customer needs to make the decision. For example: P.S. Order now and receive a free 2 hour consultation on how to use our product.
  6. Not learning how to write an effective headline. Take note of headlines that grab and keep your attention. Model your headlines after those. A headline has to contain power words that will trigger a response from the reader. For example: PainBGone gets Rid of Pain or Free Yourself from Pain and Live a Happier Life
  7. Not using the right words. A simple change like using the word ‘discover’ rather than ‘learn’ can make a big difference in the ‘feel’ of your sales copy. Rather than ‘Get the Job Done’, you should say ‘Achieve Your Goals’. Using the right words can get a psychological response that the customer cannot ignore. Here is a quick list of some effective power words: Discover Secret Proven Invest (instead of buy) Innovative Reveal Success Free Save
  8. Not making your copy believable. You’ve seen the ads that were so full of impossible promises and guarantees nobody could believe them. If the customer doubts the validity of the copy then your chances of a sale are next to nothing. Be straight-forward, honest and use simple everyday language. There is no need for using the language of a rocket scientist. If people can identify with what you are saying, they will be more apt to trust it.
  9. No sense of urgency. Sometimes people will need a little push to get them to order. This is when you need to add phrases such as: Limited Time Offer. First 10 Customers Only. Order Today for Your Free Bonuses. Help get your customer in the ‘Buy Now’ frame of mind.
  10. Not proofreading your copy. Who would put any trust in an ad that reads like this: by now to get you’re free gift today. Limitedtime offer for all order. Clcik the link below to order know. Be sure to check all spelling and grammar before publishing your ad copy. You do not have to hire a professional to get good results from your ad copy but you do need to make sure you learn the basic strategies and mistakes when writing your sales page.

Terri Seymour (also known as ‘The eBook Lady’) has over ten years online experience and has helped many people start their own business. Visit her site at http://www.seymourproducts.com

Analyzing Alexa Stats to Increase Web Traffic by Tom Koh

Website owners need to understand the statistics of the traffic flowing into their websites. The potential cannot be fully realized if this important ingredient is missing. Alexa stats may prove to be that tool to help in that process. It is important for all website owners to understand how they can analyze Alexa stats to increase the amount of visitors that they see in a given period of time. Knowing what to read from these analytical statistics will help you to run a successful marketing blitz.


Alexa is great at pulling demographics from various websites, helping users to better understand who their viewers are and who their viewers could be. Look at demographic analysis as doing a thorough survey on your target market – you are working to understand who you are targeting. The more that you understand about your target, the better that you can target them. Getting a grasp of your traffic demographics definitely helps you target the right segment of people to visit your website. This information is incredibly important in the world of advertising and marketing, crucial to the success of the biggest websites on the Internet.

Traffic Information

You need to know exactly how you are getting the traffic that you get on your website. You have to understand where the point of origin is to know what is going for your website and what is not. You want to know if individuals are simply typing in URLs, coming in off of search engine results, or are coming in off of backlinks on other websites. If you want to get website traffic you need to know where your strengths and weaknesses are, as far as traffic is concerned. You can work on pushing your strengths while honing in on and fixing your weaknesses.

Search Information

Have you ever wondered what your target market is searching for? Have you ever wondered what search results bring people directly to your website? Alexa stats will help you to boost website hits by looking at the actions of visitors and potential visitors. You will be able to make changes to your website that will directly target those individuals, helping you to see better results and higher numbers. You will get website traffic and you will see an increase I both view numbers and advertising revenue if you tailor your website to the information you find through Alexa. Alexa stats are a strong and invaluable tool for any website. These analytical tools help you to completely understand the makeup of your website and the traffic that comes into your website. They will help to show you where you need to push your focus to, and what you need to do to increase website traffic. This information undoubtedly helps you to work the statistics to achieve the results you crave for.

Tom Koh has been swimming in the primordial Internet soup since the 1990’s. He has pioneered several highly successful Internet ventures. Tom now helps others succeed by sending website traffic to help SEO, Alexa ranking and sales via one of his services: www.increase-website-traffic.org.

10 Ways to Secure Your Customer’s Satisfaction

10 Ways to Secure Your Customer’s Satisfaction by Terri Seymour

As we all know customers are the core of any business in one way or the other. Without our customers, we would be nothing. So, it would be a wise decision to make sure all of our customers are properly taken care of and satisfied when they do business with us. Listed below are ten ways we can begin to secure our customers happiness and satisfaction.

  1. Always be attentive towards the customer. Be sure to listen to them when they tell you what they want or of any problems they are having with your products and/or services. Never dismiss their opinions or questions.
  2. Reward regular customers and new potential customers. I like to treat my regular customers but be sure not to neglect potential and new customers. They deserve special treatment as well. Offer special discounts, free gifts, points towards more free gifts, coupons, money-saving bundles or packages, etc. The more options you provide, the more sales you will probably get.
  3. Respect your customers! I cannot stress this one enough. Treat your customers, one and all, like they were your family. Give them all the respect and care they need from you and then some.
  4. Earn their trust and respect! If you promise something, deliver! If you say you will give them a special deal, deliver. Always be true to your word and do not make false claims or promises. People are not stupid and they will see through deceptive marketing practices.
  5. The customer is always right. Unfortunately this is not true. The customer is sometimes wrong and in that case, you should handle it properly. Be calm, polite, supportive and helpful. Explain the problem and let the customer know what you will do to rectify the situation. Your calm demeanor can sometimes calm the customer. Never lose control of your emotions.
  6. Don’t make your customers feel like an annoyance. I have been to some places where the person taking care of me has acted like he/she didn’t want me there. This is not how you want your customers to feel! Talk to your customers, not at them. Smile and be friendly and courteous at all times. Just because your kids are acting up that day, it is no reason to take it out on your customers. Always separate your business from your problems in your own life.
  7. Don’t make your customers jump through hoops! Make their experience with you and your business as easy and pleasant as possible. Don’t make them write their life history or click a million times to get through your ordering process. Let them know the prices and any shipping and/or taxes upfront. Make sure they know exactly what to expect.
  8. Answer questions. Customers need to know what they are buying so be sure you are able to answer any and all questions they may have. If you do not have the answer readily available, assure them that you will find out the answer ASAP. Make sure they know how to contact you so they are more comfortable in your availability.
  9. Build confidence. Your customers need to be confident in you and what you offer so be sure to come through. Be straightforward and do not offer anything you cannot give. Be honest at all times. Do not try to sugarcoat things by stretching or twisting the truth. Customers will appreciate honesty and their confidence in you and your business will soar.
  10. A bad customer? Is there such a thing as a bad customer? Unfortunately there is. With some people, no matter what you to do try to make amends or make them happy, it just won’t be enough. All you can do with these customers is treat them with respect; be polite and let them know you will do anything you can to help. Even so, there are times when you just have to let a customer go. After doing everything you can with no end in sight, politely inform the customer they should perhaps go elsewhere to find what they are looking for. I have had to do this a couple of times in the five years I have had my ebook store. The first time really upset me but when I came to grips with it and went over everything I did, I realized I could not have done anything more for this person. Do not let this interfere with your business or get you frustrated or depressed; it does happen.

Satisfied customers are our best advertisements so be sure to treat them all as you would want to be treated. Customers are intelligent individuals and need to be regarded as such. Doing this will bring your business to new levels! Terri Seymour (also known as ‘The eBook Lady’) has over ten years online experience and has helped many people start their own business. Visit her site at http://www.seymourproducts.com for resources and other great info.

What Is Search Engine Optimization

What Is Search Engine Optimization

Search Engine Optimization is a process of choosing the most appropriate targeted keyword phrases related to your site and ensuring that this ranks your site highly in search engines so that when someone searches for specific phrases it returns your site on tops. It basically involves fine tuning the content of your site along with the HTML and Meta tags and also involves appropriate link building process. The most popular search engines are Google, Yahoo, MSN Search, AOL and Ask Jeeves. Search engines keep their methods and ranking algorithms secret, to get credit for finding the most valuable search-results and to deter spam pages from clogging those results. A search engine may use hundreds of factors while ranking the listings where the factors themselves and the weight each carries may change continually. Algorithms can differ so widely that a webpage that ranks #1 in a particular search engine could rank #200 in another search engine. New sites need not be “submitted” to search engines to be listed. A simple link from a well established site will get the search engines to visit the new site and begin to spider its contents. It can take a few days to even weeks from the referring of a link from such an established site for all the main search engine spiders to commence visiting and indexing the new site.

If you are unable to research and choose keywords and work on your own search engine ranking, you may want to hire someone to work with you on these issues.

Search engine marketing and promotion companies, will look at the plan for your site and make recommendations to increase your search engine ranking and website traffic. If you wish, they will also provide ongoing consultation and reporting to monitor your website and make recommendations for editing and improvements to keep your site traffic flow and your search engine ranking high. Normally your search engine optimization experts work with your web designer to build an integrated plan right away so that all aspects of design are considered at the same time.

5 Simple Steps on how to get started with Coaching

What if you discovered how to get started making massive money from your coaching program easily? Here are 5 simple steps to get you started.

Step 1 – Help your clients to solve their problems.
Step 2 – Be absolutely honest in what you are providing them.
Step 3 – Win their trust and establish yourself as an expert in your niche.
Step 4 – Make your coaching interesting and interactive.
Step 5 – Solve their most pressing questions to get results.

Here are step-by-step details that you can apply quickly and easily…

Step 1 – Help your clients to solve their problems.

To make massive income online from your coaching your main goal should be to help your clients to solve their problems. All you need to do is help them out and be reachable when they are in need. Give them one-on-one support and this will make sure that they are always motivated to stay subscribed to your coaching program. Honesty is the key to massive coaching success…

Step 2 – Be absolutely honest in what you are providing them.

You have to be absolutely honest with your clients and tell them exactly what you can provide out of your coaching and what you cannot. Reason being, they are paying you big money and they will surely expect something more from you in return. Therefore you have to make sure to specify exactly what they will be getting in terms of products and your personal time. Trust and relationship is the key to massive coaching success…

Step 3 – Win their trust and establish yourself as an expert in your niche.

If you are planning to start your coaching program, you have to be sure that you establish a trust factor with your visitors before you go about promoting them your coaching. This is because no one online will be able to shell thousands of dollars for your coaching without knowing and trusting you as an expert in your niche. Therefore make sure that you setup a system wherein your clients are forced to trust you and then you can softly promote your coaching at the backend. The more interesting will be your coaching program, more money you will make…

Step 4 – Make your coaching interesting and interactive.

It is absolutely important that your coaching program is interesting. You can do this easily by making your coaching session interactive and by allowing your clients to participate in your coaching call. The easiest way to do this is that you can tell your clients to ask you questions as soon as you are done with a particular coaching topic; then you can discuss the solution with your client. Question and answer session will make you big money out of your coaching…

Step 5 – Solve their most pressing questions to get results.

Make sure that you setup a teleseminar in your coaching program where you provide a question and answer session for your clients. All you have to do is conduct a weekly teleseminar specifically for your coaching clients and allow them to throw questions on you. Their questions will provide you a bunch of ideas that will allow you to setup your next group coaching call.

Do you want to learn more about how I do it? I have just completed by brand new few guide “How to Generate a Full Time Income Online Selling Your Coaching Services”.

Download it free here: How to Sell Coaching

Do you want to learn how to use articles like this to drive targeted traffic to your site? Click here: Article Writing Guide


Renewable energy sources more imagined than real

Renewable energy sources more imagined than real

We are often attracted to renewable sources as there seems an almost unlimited amount of potential energy available if only we can get our hands on it. We often we hear of proponents of renewable sources coming up with fantastic pools of resource at high efficiencies that we can access at no (apparent) cost. Take for example tidal energy. The amount of energy in tidal power generated by the gravitational energy of (mainly) the moon comes to a total of about 3.5 terawatt hours (1012) which seems at first sight a great deal of energy but is in fact only 20% of the global demand in total. Furthermore there are twenty places in the world where tidal flow exceeds the around 1.5 meters per sec at peak flow which would be sufficient to drive a turbine farm which means the actual accessible power is very small (and periodic) at around 200 gigawatt’s (109) of available energy – or around one thousandth of the available energy supply. So there is in principle a large amount of energy there but unfortunately we are unable to access it in any reasonable way.
I was drawn to these interesting facts in the New Scientist after a meeting where it was proposed to me that if we could all have Sterling engines installed in our homes and drive them with natural gas instead of the big power generators doing it for us we could enjoy 95% efficiencies in conversion as against the around 30% the best generators achieve. However this was a mistake and would breach the laws of thermo dynamics if it were true as a typical sterling engine has a thermal efficiency of between 20 to 30% which is nicely comparable to a car engine but not I am afraid in the 90% range. Given that most Sterling engines require exotic materials and tend to be quite expensive I doubt this is a starter in cost terms alone – although up to 150 or so KW that might be in the running for a home generator utilising waste head from the house say in summer (acting as a air conditioner).

As so often is the case spokespeople appear every so often extolling the virtues of a green half baked idea when the engineering aspects almost always rules out getting anywhere near such stratospheric benefits. We have only to look at wind power, many of the turbines operate as miserable efficiencies and blight the landscape for miles around. What is needed is a bit more evidence based evaluation and a little less hype and hope.


The Keyword Density of Non-Sense – by DR. E. Garcia

On March 24 a FINDALL search in Google for keywords density optimization returned 240,000 documents. I found many of these documents belonging to search engine marketing and optimization (SEM, SEO) specialists. Some of them promote keyword density (KD) analysis tools while others talk about things like “right density weighting”, “excellent keyword density”, KD as a “concentration” or “strength” ratio and the like. Others even take KD for the weight of term i in document j, while others propose localized KD ranges for titles, descriptions, paragraphs, tables, links, urls, etc. One can even find some specialists going after the latest KD “trick” and claiming that optimizing KD values up to a certain range for a given search engine affects the way a search engine scores relevancy and ranks documents.

Given the fact that there are so many KD theories flying around, my good friend Mike Grehan approached me after the Jupitermedia’s 2005 Search Engine Strategies Conference held in New York and invited me to do something about it. I felt the “something” should be a balanced article mixed with a bit of IR, semantics and math elements but with no conclusion so readers could draw their own. So, here we go.


In the search engine marketing literature, keyword density is defined as

Equation 1

where tfi, j is the number of times term i appears in document j and l is the total number of terms in the document. Equation 1 is a legacy idea found intermingled in the old literature on readability theory, where word frequency ratios are calculated for passages and text windows – phrases, sentences, paragraphs or entire documents – and combined with other readability tests.

The notion of keyword density values predates all commercial search engines and the Internet and can hardly be considered an IR concept. What is worse, KD plays no role on how commercial search engines process text, index documents or assign weights to terms. Why then many optimizers still believe in KD values? The answer is simple: misinformation.

If two documents, D1 and D2, consist of 1000 terms (l = 1000) and repeat a term 20 times (tf = 20), then for both documents KD = 20/1000 = 0.020 (or 2%) for that term. Identical values are obtained if tf = 10 and l = 500.

Evidently, this overall ratio tells us nothing about:

1. the relative distance between keywords in documents (proximity)

2. where in a document the terms occur (distribution)

3. the co-citation frequency between terms (co-occurrence)

4. the main theme, topic, and sub-topics (on-topic issues) of the documents

Thus, KD is divorced from content quality, semantics and relevancy. Under these circumstances one can hardly talk about optimizing term weights for ranking purposes. Add to this copy style issues and you get a good idea of why this article’s title is The Keyword Density of Non-Sense.

The following five search engine implementations illustrate the point:

1. Linearization

2. Tokenization

3. Filtration

4. Stemming

5. Weighting


Linearization is the process of ignoring markup tags from a web document so its content is reinterpreted as a string of characters to be scored. This process is carried out tag-by-tag and as tags are declared and found in the source code. As illustrated in Figure 1, linearization affects the way search engines “see”, “read” and “judge” Web content –sort of speak. Here the content of a website is rendered using two nested html tables, each consisting of one large cell at the top and the common 3-column cell format. We assume that no other text and html tags are present in the source code. The numbers at the top-right corner of the cells indicate in which order a search engine finds and interprets the content of the cells.

The box at the bottom of Figure 1 illustrates how a search engine probably “sees”, “reads” and “interprets” the content of this document after linearization. Note the lack of coherence and theming. Two term sequences illustrate the point: “Find Information About Food on sale!” and “Clients Visit our Partners”. This state of the content is probably hidden from the untrained eyes of average users. Clearly, linearization has a detrimental effect on keyword positioning, proximity, distribution and on the effective content to be “judged” and scored. The effect worsens as more nested tables and html tags are used, to the point that after linearization content perceived as meritorious by a human can be interpreted as plain garbage by a search engine. Thus, computing localized KD values is a futile exercise.

Burning the Trees and Keyword Weight Fights.

In the best-case scenario, linearization shows whether words, phrases and passages end competing for relevancy in a distorted lexicographical tree. I call this phenomenon “burning the trees”. It is one of the most overlooked web design and optimization problems.

Constructing a lexicographical tree out of linearized content reveals the actual state and relationship between nouns, adjectives, verbs, and phrases as they are actually embedded in documents. It shows the effective data structure that is been used. In many cases, linearization identifies local document concepts (noun groups) and hidden grammatical patterns. Mandelbrot has used the patterned nature of languages observed in lexicographical trees to propose a measure he calls the “temperature of discourse”. He writes: “The `hotter’ the discourse, the higher the probability of use of rare words.” (1). However, from the semantics standpoint, word rarity is a context dependent state. Thus, in my view “burning the trees” is a natural consequence of misplacing terms.

In Fractals and Sentence Production, Chapter 9 of From Complexity to Creativity (2, 3), Ben Goertzel uses an L-System model to explain that the beginning of early childhood grammar is the two-word sentence in which the iterative pattern involving nouns (N) and verbs( V) is driven by a rule in which V is replaced by V N (V >> V N). This can be illustrated with the following two iteration stages:

0 N V (as in Stevie byebye)

1 N V N (as in Stevie byebye car)

Goertzel explains, “-The reason N V is a more natural combination is because it occurs at an earlier step in the derivation process.” (3). It is now comprehensible why many Web documents do not deliver any appealing message to search engines. After linearization, it can be realized that these may be “speaking” like babies. [By the way, L-System algorithms, named after A. Lindermayer, have been used for many years in the study of tree-like patterns (4)].

“Burning the trees” explains why repeating terms in a document, moving around on-page factors or invoking link strategies, not necessarily improves relevancy. In many instances one can get the opposite result. I recommend SEOs to start incorporating lexicographical/word pattern techniques, linearization strategies and local context analysis (LCA) into their optimization mix. (5)

In Figure 1, “burning the trees” was the result of improper positioning of text. However in many cases the effect is a byproduct of sloppy Web design, poor usability or of improper use of the HTML DOM structure (another kind of tree). This underscores an important W3C recommendation: that html tables should be use for presenting tabular data, not for designing Web documents. In most cases, professional web designers can do better by replacing tables with cascading style sheets (CSS).

“Burning the trees” often leads to another phenomenon I call “keyword weight fights”. It is a recurrent problem encountered during topic identification (topic spotting), text segmentation (based on topic changes) and on-topic analysis (6). Considering that co-occurrence patterns of words and word classes provide important information about how a language is used, misplaced keywords and text without clear topic transitions difficult the work of text summarization editors (humans or machine-based) that need to generate representative headings and outlines from documents.

Thus, the “fight” unnecessarily difficults topic disambiguation and the work of human abstractors that during document classification need to answer questions like “What is this document or passage about?”, “What is the theme or category of this document, section or paragraph?”, “How does this block of links relate to the content?”, etc.

While linearization renders localized KD values useless, document indexing makes a myth out of this metric. Let see why.

Tokenization, Filtration and Stemming

Document indexing is the process of transforming document text into a representation of text and consists of three steps: tokenization, filtration and stemming.

During tokenization terms are lowercased and punctuation removed. Rules must be in place so digits, hyphens and other symbols can be parsed properly. Tokenization is followed by filtration. During filtration commonly used terms and terms that do not add any semantic meaning (stopwords) are removed. In most IR systems survival terms are further reduced to common stems or roots. This is known as stemming. Thus, the initial content of length l is reduced to a list of terms (stems and words) of length l’ (i.e., l’ < l). These processes are described in Figure 2. Evidently, if linearization shows that you have already “burned the trees”, a search engine will be indexing just that.

Similar lists can be extracted from individual documents and merged to conform an index of terms. This index can be used for different purposes; for instance, to compute term weights and to represent documents and queries as term vectors in a term space.


The weight of a term in a document consists of three different types of term weighting: local, global, and normalization. The term weight is given by

Equation 2

where Li, j is the local weight for term i in document j, Gi is the global weight for term i and Nj is the normalization factor for document j. Local weights are functions of how many times each term occurs in a document, global weights are functions of how many times documents containing each term appears in the collection, and the normalization factor corrects for discrepancies in the lengths of the documents.

In the classic Term Vector Space model

Equation 3, 4 and 5

which reduces to the well-known tf*IDF weighting scheme

Equation 6

where log(D/di) is the Inverse Document Frequency (IDF), D is the number of documents in the collection (the database size) and di is the number of documents containing term i.

Equation 6 is just one of many term weighting schemes found in the term vector literature. Depending on how L, G and N are defined, different weighting schemes can be proposed for documents and queries.

KD values as estimators of term weights?

The only way that KD values could be taken for term weights

Equation 7

is if global weights are ignored and the normalization factor Nj is redefined in terms of document lengths

Equation 8

However, Gi = IDF = 1 constraints the collection size D to be equal to ten times the number of documents containing the term (D = 10*d) and Nj = 1/lj implies no stopword filtration. These conditions are not observed in commercial search systems.

Using a probabilistic term vector scheme in which IDF is defined as

Equation 9

does not help either since the condition Gi = IDF = 1 implies that D = 11*d. Additional unrrealistic constraints can be derived for other weighting schemes when Gi = 1.

To sum up, the assumption that KD values could be taken for estimates of term weights or that these values could be used for optimization purposes amounts to the Keyword Density of Non-Sense.


The Fractal Geometry of Nature, Benoit B. Mandelbrot, Chapter 38, W. H. Freeman, 1983.

From Complexity to Creativity: Computational Models of Evolutionary, Autopoietic and Cognitive Dynamics, Ben Goertzel, Plenum Press (1997).

Fractals and Sentence Production, Ben Goertzel, Ref 2, Chapter 9, Plenum Press (1997).

The Algorithmic Beauty of Plants, P. Prusinkiewicz and A. Lindenmayer, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1990.

Topic Analysis Using a Finite Mixture Model, Hang Li and Kenji Yamanish.

Improving the Effectiveness of Information Retrieval with Local Context Analysis, Jinxi Xu, W. Bruce Croft.

© Dr. E. Garcia. 2005


Facebook Pages vs. Profiles: Don’t Make the Wrong Choice if you are a business or church group

This was a great Article that was sent to me that I thought it would be useful to post – I have also to warn our local church group who have also setup on facebook that it could even happen to them!

Facebook Pages vs. Profiles: Don’t Make the Wrong Choice by Lani and Allen Voived

If there’s one thing we hate, it’s to be the bearer of bad news. Okay, we know, who actually likes to be the bearer of bad news, aside from your gossipy Aunt Edna? But we digress. We’ve had more than a few businesses and organizations reach out to connect with us on Facebook recently who have set their business/organization up as a personal account, known in Facebook parlance as a ‘Profile.’ These are well-meaning folks who have amassed hundreds of connections – ‘Friends’ – and we’re just going to be blatant and capitalize the terminology for ultimate clarity.

These businesses/organizations are at risk to lose all the equity they’ve built on Facebook. Immediately, suddenly, and without prejudice. You see, Facebook’s rules say ‘Profiles represent individuals and must be held under an individual name, while (Fan) Pages allow an organization, business, celebrity, or band to maintain a professional presence on Facebook. So if you’re using a Profile to represent a business or organization on Facebook, you’re violating their Terms of Use, and you could have your Profile – including all Friends, content, and customization – deleted without warning.

Now, what are the chances you’ll get found out in the sea of 400,000,000 users? Maybe not huge. But for what it’s worth, we know firsthand that it’s not an urban legend. It happened to a client of ours, on a product line in which we’re not involved. Once we got wind of what was going on, we warned them of the risk. They didn’t take heed, and their account got found and axed within the same week. Thankfully, they hadn’t gone too far down the Facebook road on that account – they lost a couple of months of activity and about 200 Friends. But ones who have reached out to us in recent months have many more Friends, and years of content that could literally disappear overnight.

If you use a Profile to represent yourself as a professional associated with a business or organization, you’ve got no worries. (Unless you maintain a second Facebook Profile for your personal life – that’s against Facebook’s rules, too.)If you ARE using a Facebook Profile against their Terms of Use, however, here’s what you should do:

1. Create a Fan Page for your business or organization.
Also referred to simply as a ‘Page,’ that’s the functionality Facebook created just for folks like you.

2. Send a message to all your Friends.
Tell them you’re converting your Profile over to represent you as a person by a certain date, and refer them to your newly created Page to continue to interact with your business/organization. In fact, give yourself time so you can send 2-3 messages. When’s the first time you remember taking immediate action on something yourself?

3. Follow through.
Even if you think you have no use for a personal Profile on Facebook (you do, but let’s not get into that right now), don’t waste the equity you’ve already built up. You’ve done your due diligence by letting your Friends know multiple times about the change. So make the change, and let your Friends do what they will in response. It’s an opt-in/opt-out society.

Good luck with the conversion, and if you have any in-the-trenches stories about this issue, or other related tips ‘n tricks to share, by all means post ‘em on our ‘Epiphanies, Inc. – Social Marketing & Success Strategies’ Fan Page on Facebook. And if you’re not on Facebook at all yet, do what you can to get past your hesitations and get on board. 400,000,000+ humans can’t be wrong … can they?

As Certified Social Media Strategists and Certified Inbound Marketing Professionals, Lani and Allen Voivod of Epiphanies, Inc., train teams, craft strategies, and serve as long-term success partners for a handful of global brands, industries, and mission-driven organizations. Find out how they can help your business boost visibility, community, competitive edge, memberships, and profits at http://facebook.com/AhaYourself!

How to use Twitter effectively for Business: Tips and Tricks

Tips and Tricks on Using Twitter for Business by Anton Pearce

Have you thought about using Twitter to market your business? Twitter is free, and available to small and large businesses. Here are some tips and tricks on using Twitter to promote your business.  Here are four tips to use your Twitter account effectively.

Following other Twitter accounts that are in your target demographic will help you get an idea of what the conversation is. Then you need to post updates about your company, brand or product. As with any online medium, you want to be very careful to never spam any of your followers. Lastly, make sure that you follow successful online marketers, and look for other participants who are in your industry.

First Build an Account for Twitter Marketing
The first thing that you should do is to set up your Twitter account and populate it with several interesting Tweets, which are Twitter posts. Then begin following people who are also using Twitter, and you will find that most people will follow back. When your entire Twitter feed has blanks, though, most people will not bother to follow you. Once you start a micro blog post, you can get on with following any target demographic, and this can be done in either of two different ways.
1. Go to Twitter.com and do a search by typing in keywords that relate to the demographic that you are targeting. For example, if you are trying to sell an application for the iPhone, you would enter the keyword ‘iPhone’ or ‘iPhone app’ or anything that may find people who own an iPhone. It’s easy to follow people. If your posts are interesting and relevant, you will probably pick up some followers this way.
2. Locate Twitter accounts that you want to follow by clicking the ‘Find People’ option. Then enter your keywords, related industries, locations or other defining detail to locate followers, and begin following them.

Twitter Marketing Uses Current Information
By adding news that is interesting and relevant about your services or product, you can keep your Tweets current. You can also add information about related news for your industry to keep Tweets interesting and informative. For example, if you sell cooking gadgets, you may want to post news about food and recipes.
As you work on developing your targeted demographic, you need to keep your followers engaged, so you will want to tweet, or post, often. Make sure to retweet relevant tweets from other Twitter followers. This is another great way to pick up new followers, and when they start to follow you, you also are plugged into their followers. Retweeting is one of the fastest ways to build your following or network.
By checking with search.twitter.com frequently you can look for brand names and see what customers are saying. You can follow these Twitter accounts and thank them. If you see customers who are angry or dissatisfied, you can follow them as well. Then you can retweet them and solicit solutions to the problem. Your customers will be thrilled with the feedback from you, and even more thrilled when you rectify the situation. Twitter makes it easy to grow a ‘word of mouth’ reputation virally.

Twitter Marketing and Spam Do Not Mix
Spam in any electronic media is the kiss of death. If you begin spamming your followers, they will drop you like a hot potato. Spam activity would include only posting information on your own products, retweeting the same URL repeatedly, obnoxious Twitter handles, and frivolous tweets. Twitter followers are savvy consumers, and anything deceptive or patronizing is going to leave a bad taste in their mouth.

Twitter Marketing Can Assess the Competition
If you want to build a quality following, then follow quality people on Twitter. There are many online marketers that are experts on Twitter like Dave Peck, Chris Brogan and Guy Kawasaki, and they should definitely be included in your list on Twitter. Also look for corporations that are active on Twitter. They are blazing a trail with their marketing, and you can get good marketing information from them.
Do not forget to look at what your competition is doing. See how they are going about increasing their own following on Twitter. If you want to be a smart marketer online, then you need to constantly be aware of what your competition is doing out in cyberspace. You have a huge marketing opportunity if they rarely post on Twitter, never retweet, or attend to negative posts.

Twitter Marketing Requires Patience
When you are using Twitter as part of your Internet marketing plan, you need to give it time to work. Twitter results take a while to appear, because it is one of the more long-term strategies. You will have to build up your networks and following, and if you use the correct strategies, it will happen in a timely manner. However, do not start a Twitter campaign if you are not going to see it through to completion, because an unattended Twitter account is worse than no account at all.
Once you have built a good Twitter following, then you want to market with a gentle touch. Instead of using ‘in your face’ marketing tactics, pose a question where your product or service is the answer. Tweet that there are updates on your company’s blog instead of trying to cram the information into your tweet, and people that want to know more will click through to your blog.

Always respond when your followers tweet you. If you do not keep up with your following, it will begin to crumble. If you have too large of a following to maintain, then outsource your retweets or assign an employee to monitor and reply to your followers.

Twitter is an interactive marketing tool, and because of this it is valuable in two ways. While it is instrumental in getting your message out, it is also hugely helpful in taking the pulse of your customers. So make sure that your Twitter marketing efforts start strong and more importantly stay strong. For more advanced guidance, sign up for Anton Pearce’s ‘Clients on Tap’ ezine. It’s absolutely free and will show how to implement systems that generate all the clients you need for your professional practice. This ezine is essential reading if you want to get your online marketing systems set